Important dates in the human conquest of space

It’s always been a raceSpace invasion challenge between countries and a political and strategic message, especially between the United States and the former Soviet Union during the Cold War.

On April 12, 1961, the first human flight into space took place, with Soviet Yuri Gagarin on board.

A few years earlier, in 1957, the first man-made satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched into outer space, marking the opening of the door to exploration.The space.

Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman to orbit the Earth on June 16, 1963.


Then Neil Armstrong set foot on the surface of the moon on July 20, 1969. And with the docking of the “Apollo” and “Soyuz” spacecraft on July 17, 1975, it was the first international human mission to space, after which a permanent human presence was maintained Multinational in outer aboard the International Space Station

Developed nations realized that outer adds a new dimension to human existence, and to improve the conditions of human life on planet Earth. As usual, space exploration operations were organized, in which many countries entered, including China, the European Union, India, Brazil, and finally the UAE, and then private companies,

and this exploration is subject to the provisions of the “Magna Carta (Great Charter) related to space” since 1967 as it is the basic instrument of international law, Which is subject to development as the horizons of space exploration develop.

The benefits of space exploration

The “Apollo” project was an affirmation of the human ability to travel to the stars, but the significance of this ability remained unknown, but during the nineties of the twentieth century, space flights launched a new generation of satellites and more advanced automated probes, which work to discover planets near Earth, and new countries entered the challenge,

which led to crowding in the space arena. In addition to the US Space Agency, Russia has maintained its expertise and capabilities in this field.

Japan became somewhat independent in most space activities, Europe entered the twenty-first century as a major space power within the European Agency, China established itself as a e power after decades of continuous efforts, and India continued to develop its missile capabilities after its successful commercial launch of satellites into near-earth orbit in 1999. .

The fruits that man reaps from space flights center around increasing scientific knowledge in this field and its secrets, possibilities for new research and the potential for developing industries, and introducing inventions that can be directly employed in the service of man, including the use of Earth’s orbit to receive hundreds of satellites,

which had a great impact on humanity, as The distances between humans have been shortened through the advanced communication network, and they have added a lot to their knowledge of the earth, such as improving weather forecasts, monitoring and exploring earthly resources, and assisting in navigation, rescue, and hunting.

These trips produced applications in the fields of electronic computer technology, consumer materials, medicine, the environment, industrial productivity improvement, transportation, etc., such as smoke detectors, flat screen TV screens, long-use batteries, pollution measuring devices, water purification, and various laser medical treatment systems for breast cancer and heart disease,

which can be accessed through direct research. Much cheaper and faster. As well as the development of research through the deployment of space telescopes that explore the depths of space, which in turn led to new discoveries that people did not expect to reach in such a short period.

Private companies and space tourism

Space conquest remained the monopoly of major countries and their institutions, led by the US Space Agency “NASA”, which receives huge funding to carry out its missions. But in the past few years, initiatives have emerged from private companies to conquer spaces, the most famous of which was announced by SpaceX, which was founded by Elon Musk, the entrepreneur with the most courageous ideas in this field. 

The most recent of which was his company’s announcement last week of launching its first rocket carrying people into Earth’s orbit, more than two weeks after it launched a fleet of 60 satellites. The Falcon 9 rocket launched from Florida, carrying the Crew Dragon spacecraft designed by SpaceX and funded by NASA, with two of the agency’s astronauts on board: Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley.

This is the first time that a commercial spacecraft has transported humans into space, and the first time that astronauts have been launched from the United States. since the end of the spaces shuttle program nine years ago, as America relied on joint flights with Russia that transported American astronauts, to join them. their colleagues on the InternationalSpace Station

These recent developments from the entry of private companies into the race to conquer spaceraise several questions about the economic feasibility of these trips. which range in cost from a few million dollars as a minimum for small satellites, and a hundred billion dollars for the International SpaceStation.

Space tourism represents a very promising sector, and there is talk that may seem fanciful about establishing tourist resorts on the moon. for example, or manufacturing complex drugs and vehicles in conditions of zero gravity. And in September 2016, SpaceX revealed its intention to reach Mars and make spacetravel tourism available to everyone. It started advertising on its website about ticket prices.

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